VOLUME 38 | ISSUE 1 | JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2018

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The Saudi Diabetic Kidney Disease study (Saudi-DKD): clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters

Khalid Al-Rubeaan,a Khalid Siddiqui,b Mohammed A. Al-Ghonaim,c Amira M. Youssef,d Dhekra AlNaqebe

From the aUniversity Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; bStrategic Center for Diabetes Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; cCollege of Medicine, King Khalid Universe Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia; dRegistry Department, University Diabetes Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; eResearch Department, University Diabetes Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

How to cite this article:

Al-Rubeaan K, Siddiqui K, Alghonaim M, Youssef AM, AlNaqeeb D. The Saudi Diabetic Kidney Disease study (Saudi-DKD): clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters. Ann Saudi Med 2018; 38(1): 46-56.

DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.03.01.1010

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabia is facing an epidemic of type 2 diabetes that is complicated by a high rate of chronic complications such as kidney disease, which have a major impact on the healthcare system and economy. The Saudi diabetic kidney disease (SAUDI-DKD) study was launched to understand the implications of chronic diabetic kidney disease .

 

OBJECTIVES: Examine the hematological, biochemical and metabolic parameters of the selected cohorts to look for biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy.

 

DESIGN: Cross-sectional, hospital-based.

 

SETTING: Four general hospitals and two dialysis centers in Riyadh.

 

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited adult type 2 diabetic patients aged between 35 and 70 years, with a duration of diabetes >10 years, including subjects with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD). They were compared with subjects with normal albumin excretion classified according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria.

 

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The effect of different stages of diabetic nephropathy on hematological and biochemical parameters.

 

RESULTS: Of 427 subjects with nephropathy, 184 (43%) had microalbuminuria, 83 (19%) had macroalbu.minuria and 160 (37%) had end stage renal disease (ESRD). The remaining 213 (50%) subjects did not have nephropathy. Patients with nephropathy were older with a mean age (SD) of 55.62 (6.00) years and had a longer duration of diabetes (mean [SD], 19.04 [6.33]) years), and had a lower monthly income and body mass index (BMI) than patients without nephropathy. Insulin resistance, elevated uric acid level, low red blood cells (RBCs) count and low hemoglobin level were associated with significantly increased risk of macroalbuminuria and ESRD. Elevated uric acid and LDH were associated with significantly increased risk of microalbuminuria and ESRD, while elevated red blood cell distribution width was significantly associated with an increased risk of ESRD.

 

CONCLUSION: Diabetic nephropathy is associated with insulin resistance, changes in liver enzymes and uric acid in addition to abnormalities in the red blood cell count and red blood cell shape that warrant frequent monitoring among patients with diabetic kidney disease.

 

LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional study design and exclusion of patients with some risk factors.

 

 

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